Breaking News Breaking News articles brought to you by History News Network. Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 Zend_Feed_Writer 2 (http://framework.zend.com) https://new.hnn.us/article/category/55 Timothy Thomas Fortune: A Great, Forgotten Black Radical I wrote this comic about Timothy Thomas Fortune, a newspaper editor, orator, and leader who was born into slavery and spent most of his life advocating for the rights of black Americans. Although not as well known as some of his more famous counterparts, Fortune had a profound influence on the battle for civil rights.

— Adam Serwer

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171330 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171330 0
Black History Trail Makes 200 Stops Across Massachusetts MEDFORD, Mass. — During Black History Month, Massachusetts likes to point out its reputation as the enlightened 19th-century hub of the abolition movement. The state was one of the first to end slavery, long before the 13th Amendment formally banned it nationwide in 1865.

Less well known is that Massachusetts was the first to legalize slavery, in 1641. Even before then, merchants in the Massachusetts Bay Colony had enslaved Native Americans, and by 1638 were bartering them for Africans in the West Indies. The slave trade grew from there and soon became a pillar of the colonial economy.

Two professors at Tufts University, Kendra Field and Kerri Greenidge, are among the many scholars who have been tracing the history of Massachusetts’s African-American residents, from slavery to Black Lives Matter.

Their research, a collaboration with students and nonprofit organizations, has evolved into what they call the African American Trail Project, a website that maps out more than 200 historic sites across the state.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171329 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171329 0
Emmett Till's Murder and How America Remembers Its Darkest Moments Along the edge of Money Road, across from the railroad tracks, an old grocery store rots.

In August 1955, a 14-year-old black boy visiting from Chicago walked in to buy candy. After being accused of whistling at the white woman behind the counter, he was later kidnapped, tortured, lynched and dumped in the Tallahatchie River.

The murder of Emmett Till is remembered as one of the most hideous hate crimes of the 20th century, a brutal episode in American history that helped kindle the civil rights movement. And the place where it all began, Bryant’s Grocery & Meat Market, is still standing. Barely.

Today, the store is crumbling, roofless and covered in vines. On several occasions, preservationists, politicians and business leaders — even the State of Mississippi — have tried to save its remaining four walls. But no consensus has been reached.

Some residents in the area have looked on the store as a stain on the community that should be razed and forgotten. Others have said it should be restored as a tribute to Emmett and a reminder of the hate that took his life.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171328 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171328 0
‘Slavery is not a game’: Virginia school apologizes over Black History Month exercise An elementary school in Northern Virginia is apologizing for trivializing slavery after students played a game in a physical education class that required them to simulate moving through the Underground Railroad.

As part of recognizing Black History Month, students in the third, fourth and fifth grades at Madison’s Trust Elementary in Brambleton, Va., were given a lecture this month about the Underground Railroad. The students were then divided into groups of six and were responsible for overcoming a physical obstacle, such as moving through plastic hoops without knocking them over, said Wayde Byard, Loudoun County Public Schools spokesman.

“It trivializes something that is important,” Byard said. “There was an error made here. . . . Slavery is not a game.”

The game, first reported by the Loudoun Times-Mirror, was supposed to teach teamwork, communication and cooperation, according to the school system.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171326 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171326 0
How the Republican Response to the Mueller Investigation Breaks With History As the Watergate scandal unfolded, Republican allies of President Richard Nixon raised questions about the partisan leanings of investigators and sought to undermine some of their conclusions.

One thing they didn’t do: Investigate the investigators.

But as Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian meddling in the 2016 election progressed over the past two years, GOP lawmakers sought to defend President Donald Trump in part by digging into the investigation itself, something historians say is unprecedented in American politics.

As documented in the New York Times this week, the president’s allies in Congress have opened investigations into the FBI’s handling of investigations into former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, received private texts from the Justice Department between two FBI officials involved in the Russia case, gone after sensitive Justice Department documents about the start of the investigation and trusted informants, and threatened to hold the deputy attorney general in contempt of Congress for refusing to provide certain documents.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171325 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171325 0
In Search of George Washington Carver’s True Legacy If the name George Washington Carver conjures up any spark of recognition, it’s probably associated with peanuts. That isn’t an unfair connection—he did earn the nickname “the peanut man” for his work with the legume—but it’s one that doesn’t give credit to the rest of Carver’s pioneering, fascinating work.

“People, when they think of Carver, they think of his science—or they think he invented peanuts,” says Curtis Gregory, a park ranger at the George Washington Carver National Monument at Carver’s birthplace in Diamond, Missouri. “There’s so much more to the man.”

Mark Hersey, a history professor at Mississippi State University and author of an environmental biography of Carver, says that “[Carver] became famous for things he probably shouldn’t have been famous for, and that fame obscured the reasons we should remember him.” In Hersey’s view, the contributions Carver made to the environmental movement, including his ahead-of-the-times ideas about self-sufficiency and sustainability, are far more important than the “cook-stove chemistry” he engaged in.

Nonetheless, Carver became ludicrously famous for his peanut work—possibly the most famous black man in America for a while. Upon his death in 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt remarked on his passing: “The world of science has lost one of its most eminent figures,” he said.

 

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171324 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171324 0
'Honest Babe.' People Are Having a Hard Time Keeping It Together Thanks to This Chiseled Abraham Lincoln Statue Chemistry is powerful and sometimes it hits you from a place you least expect it.

On Wednesday evening, that place was the Los Angeles Federal Building, where someone captured and shared the internet’s latest object of desire – a youthful eight-foot tall statue of Abraham Lincoln that’s been on display since 1939.

In this irresistible depiction, casual Honest Abe strikes a pose sans shirt and sans shoes, holding a book in one hand, clutching the top of his low-slung trousers in the other, emanating beams of confidence. It’s abundantly clear from his Indiana limestone and arms and granite rock hard abs that this statue is portraying a guy who worked out.

The Young Lincoln statue first made its splashy debut at the New York World’s Fair in 1939, but as one astute Twitter user who loves art history points out, it’s never too late to be reminded of its existence.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171323 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171323 0
National Security Archive Publishes New Declassified Documents on Dick Cheney The movie VICE, nominated for eight Academy Awards including the best picture Oscar, shows on screen several documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. Those documents relate to then-Vice President Dick Cheney’s meetings with oil company lobbyists discussing potential drilling in Iraq. But at least a dozen other declassified records deserve screen time before Sunday’s Oscars show, according to the National Security Archive’s publication today of primary sources from Cheney’s checkered career.

The documents show how Cheney built a rap sheet for drunk driving and arranged draft deferments in the 1960s, pitched in on President Gerald R. Ford’s unsuccessful veto of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in 1974, helped undermine investigations of CIA scandals in 1975, excused President Ronald Reagan’s Iran-contra misdeeds in 1987, mistakenly distrusted Gorbachev and slowed the end of the Cold War in 1989, promoted the global hegemon role for the U.S. in 1992, hid his work with oil companies in 2001 to set energy policy, endorsed torture and warrantless surveillance in the 2000s, played a leading role in trashing Iraq and the Middle East from the Iraq invasion in 2003 to the present, mysteriously went whole days at the White House without his Vice President’s office generating any saved e-mail, and presented a danger to civilians whether they were armed or not by shooting his hunting partner in 2006.

Common themes emerge from the documents, including Cheney’s long-standing commitment to defending and expanding presidential power, especially on national security matters, a predilection for the “dark side” in CIA operations from the scandals of the 1970s to the War on Terror, and his disastrously wrong foreign policy judgment. Cheney explained his intellectual history to reporters in 2005 by saying, “Watergate and a lot of the things around Watergate and Vietnam both during the ’70s served, I think, to erode the authority I think the president needs to be effective,” and went on to cite the Iran-Contra congressional committee minority report published below.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171321 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171321 0
A War Memorial Is Being Expanded. Some Say It Whitewashes History. CANBERRA, Australia — In a small section of the Australian War Memorial, past softly lit halls displaying World War I and II battlefield dioramas, is an exhibit dedicated to the Iraq War. 

In the display cases are gas masks and uniforms, modern updates of those worn a century earlier when troops fought at Gallipoli and the Western Front. The accompanying text tells visitors that the “U.S.-led invasion of Iraq was motivated by concerns that the Iraqi regime continued to hold weapons of mass destruction.” 

The description goes on to chronicle Australia’s role in the 2003 invasion, which included committing special forces, carrying out naval and air operations, and training Iraqi troops. But it does not mention that the United States, Britain and Australia greatly exaggerated that threat, and no such weapons were found.

Now that partial account of the war in Iraq, as well as Australia’s participation in the war in Afghanistan, is about to get a significant boost: The memorial — composed of cenotaphs, a research center and a museum — has received 498 million Australian dollars (around $350 million) in government funding to build new sections commemorating the country’s more recent foreign conflicts.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171320 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171320 0
Revisiting Robert Penn Warren's Civil Rights Interviews In 1930, a cadre of poet-critics known as the Fugitives—white southern loyalists who were wary of the effects of industrial capitalism and hoped to preserve what they saw as the pastoral lifeblood of their native region—published an essay-collection-cum-manifesto called “I’ll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition.” One of the book’s essays, “The Briar Patch,” was written by a twenty-five-year-old Rhodes Scholar from Kentucky named Robert Penn Warren, who had helped found the group. In his essay, Warren argued that African-Americans should focus on forming their own agrarian state, a network of black-owned farms that would promote economic independence and eliminate any motive to move north or come into contact with white society. “In the past the Southern negro has always been a creature of the small town and farm,” Warren wrote. “That is where he still chiefly belongs, by temperament and capacity.”

Years later, in an interview, Warren said that “The Briar Patch” was a product of “that fatalism that was deeply engrained in the Southern mind.” Warren insisted that he had never been comfortable with segregation, but that, at the time, he could not imagine any other system prevailing in the South—and so, in the essay, he dreamed up what he considered a fair, benign version of it. Whatever pressures shaped “The Briar Patch,” Warren, by the time he gave the interview, had gone from one of the South’s most celebrated writers—his novel “All the King’s Men,” from 1946, won the Pulitzer Prize and was quickly adapted into a movie that won Best Picture at the Oscars—to one of its most incisive critics. After the Brown v. Board of Education decision, in 1954, Warren compiled a short work of oral history titled “Segregation: The Inner Conflict In the South,” in which he bemoaned the region’s resistance to the Supreme Court’s ruling. In 1961, he published “The Legacy of the Civil War,” a powerful study in mythography that cast the Lost Cause as a fiction deleterious to those who cherish it, converting “defeat into victory, defects into virtues.” For Warren, the problem of fatalism was a recurrent one. “We are the prisoners of our history,” he wrote, in “Segregation.” “Or are we?”

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171316 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171316 0
Blackface, KKK hoods and mock lynchings: Review of 900 yearbooks finds blatant racism The old yearbook photos capture the lighthearted moments from college worth remembering – smiling faces, pep rallies and cans of cheap beer.

But tucked in and among those same pages are pictures of students dressed in Ku Klux Klan robes and blackface, nooses and mock lynchings, displays of racism not hidden but memorialized as jokes to laugh about later.   Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, a stunning number of colleges and university yearbooks published images of blatant racism on campus, the USA TODAY Network found in a review of 900 publications at 120 schools across the country.   At Cornell University in New York, three fraternity members are listed in the 1980 yearbook as “Ku,” “Klux” and “Klan.” For their 1971 yearbook picture, a dozen University of Virginia fraternity members, some armed, wore dark cloaks and hoods while peering up at a lynched mannequin in blackface. In one of the most striking images – from the 1981 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign yearbook – a black man is smiling and holding a beer while posing with three people in full KKK regalia.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171312 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171312 0
Tucker Carlson Attacks Dutch Historian and Defends His Words on Show Fox News host Tucker Carlson responded Wednesday to a now-viral video of an unaired interview in which he swore at a guest, calling him a “moron” and a “tiny brain,” by apologizing for his use of profanity but defending his fiery reaction as “entirely accurate.”

“I did what I try hard never to do on this show, and I was rude,” Carlson said in a video posted to Fox News’s website about his exchange with Dutch historian Rutger Bregman. The host later added, “There is some profanity and I apologize for that. On the other hand, it was genuinely heartfelt. I meant it with total sincerity.”

Last week, Carlson invited Bregman onto his show following the historian’s January appearance at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Bregman made headlines worldwide after he excoriated the Alpine conference’s attendees — a who’s who of global elites — for tax avoidance.

But viewers never saw Carlson’s interview with Bregman, who wrote on Twitter last week that the host called him a “f---ing moron.” In another tweet, Bregman said he had a recording of the entire exchange, prompting many to push for the video to be released.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171309 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171309 0
How Do You Preserve History On The Moon? Historic preservationists are hoping that the upcoming 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing this summer will persuade the United Nations to do something to protect Neil Armstrong's footprints in the lunar dust.

Some of his boot marks are still up there, after all, along with other precious artifacts from humanity's first steps on another world. Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin left behind tools and science equipment, a plaque that read, "We came in peace for all mankind" and the U.S. flag, which has likely been bleached white by five decades of harsh ultraviolet light.

Other than a dusting of lunar soil or the random micrometeorite impact, Tranquility Base has been an untouched time capsule since the astronauts departed — though that could change as more nations and even commercial companies start to explore the moon.

"There has never been historic preservation off our planet. It's a really difficult subject," says Michelle Hanlon, a law professor and space law expert at the University of Mississippi who co-founded For All Moonkind, a nonprofit group devoted to protecting historic sites in space.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171302 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171302 0
The Obama Presidential Library That Isn’t The Obama Presidential Center promises to be a presidential library like no other.

The four-building, 19-acre “working center for citizenship,” set to be built in a public park on the South Side of Chicago, will include a 235-foot-high “museum tower,” a two-story event space, an athletic center, a recording studio, a winter garden, even a sledding hill.

But the center, which will cost an estimated $500 million, will also differ from the complexes built by Barack Obama’s predecessors in another way: It won’t actually be a presidential library.

In a break with precedent, there will be no research library on site, and none of Mr. Obama’s official presidential records. Instead, the Obama Foundation will pay to digitize the roughly 30 million pages of unclassified paper records from the administration so they can be made available online.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171301 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171301 0
13 Objects That Begin to Tell The Story of Women's History in America Ortho-Novum Pill Pack • 1963

The sexual revolution didn’t start the moment the pill (pictured in above image) was approved for contraception, in 1960. The (usually male) doctors who prescribed it in those first years often had a policy of restricting its use to women who were married, and who already had children. No free-love proponents or feminist firebrands allowed.

Physicians at university health clinics had tough decisions to make in those early days, according to a 1965 New York Times Magazine article: Should they prescribe the pill to single girls? Perhaps, if the patient brought a note from her pastor certifying that she was about to be married. But for students with no matrimonial plans? “If we did,” one clinic staffer told the author of the Times article, Cornell professor Andrew Hacker, “word would get around the dorms like wildfire and we’d be writing out prescriptions several times a day.”

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171300 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171300 0
What Schools Teach About Women’s History Leaves a Lot to Be Desired In the introduction to her 1970 anthology Sisterhood Is Powerful, author and activist Robin Morgan wrote that the women’s liberation movement was “creating history, or rather, herstory,” coining the popular term that second-wave feminists used to highlight the way in which women were consistently overlooked in historical narratives.

Though women have made strides in countless arenas, breaking glass ceilings everywhere, the canon of American history, at least as it is taught in public schools, still has much room for reexamination and advancement.

About two years ago, authors with the virtual National Women’s History Museum analyzed the K-12 educational standards in social studies for each of the 50 states and Washington, D.C. They published their findings in Where Are the Women?, a 2017 report on the status of women in the standards that dictate who and what is taught in classrooms. Their report found just how few women are required reading in America’s schools.

According to Smithsonian’s calculations, 737 specific historical figures—559 men and 178 women, or approximately 1 woman for every 3 men—are mentioned in the standards in place as of 2017. Aside from the individuals explicitly named, many references to women feel like an afterthought, grouped in with other minorities as they are in the Florida standard for high school social studies, which prompts educators to teach their classes about significant inventors of the Industrial Revolution, “including an African American or a woman.”

 

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171299 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171299 0
A Centuries-Old Idea Could Revolutionize Climate Policy The economic thinker who most influenced the Green New Deal isn’t Marx or Lenin. No, if you want to understand Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez’s bid to remake the economy to fight climate change, you need to read Hamilton.

Yes, Alexander Hamilton. Long before he was associated with theatrical hip-hop, former Treasury Secretary Hamilton called for policies that sound familiar to us today. Like Representative Ocasio-Cortez, he wanted massive federal spending on new infrastructure. Like Donald Trump, he believed that very high tariffs can nurture American manufacturing. And like Elizabeth Warren, he was willing to bend the Constitution to reform the financial system.

Hamilton, in short, successfully used the power of the federal government to boost manufacturing, to pick winners and losers, and to shape the fate of the U.S. economy. He is the father of American industrial policy: the set of laws and regulations that say the federal government can guide economic growth without micromanaging it. And the Green New Deal, for all its socialist regalia, only makes sense in light of his capitalistic work.

In the days since Ocasio-Cortez debuted the Green New Deal, consensus has hardened: It is legislation by listicle. “An aspirational climate policy wish list,” writes the democratic socialist Ryan Cooper. “A needlessly long wish list,” saysThe New York Times’ David Leonhardt. “An untrammeled Dear Santa letter without form, purpose, borders, or basis in reality,” adds National Review’s Charles C. W. Cooke, in Buckleyan reverie.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171298 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171298 0
Trump keeps warning of a coup. But the only one in American history was a bloody, racist uprising. The small clapboard house near the banks of the Cape Fear River in Wilmington, N.C., went up in flames, and a black resident alleged to have wounded a white man fled for his life.

As he pleaded that he had five small children to support, a white member of the mob that had assembled struck him on the head with a gas pipe. A leader of a vigilante patrol unit told him to run for his freedom, but he made it just 50 yards before 40 guns were turned on him, sending bullets into his shoulders and back.

Daniel Wright, a well-known politician serving on the county’s Republican executive committee, was one of at least 60 — but possibly as many as 300 — black Americans massacred in Wilmington on Nov. 10, 1898, as bands of white supremacists used racial terrorism to destabilize the Southern port city and overthrow its multiracial government.

By the end of the day, the neo-Confederates had executed the only successful coup in United States history. The exact death toll is not known. Nor did the extent of the bloodshed matter to white business leaders, clergy and professionals who applauded when the man who would become Wilmington’s mayor, Alfred Moore Waddell, said he was prepared to “choke the current of the Cape Fear with carcasses” if it meant bringing white Democrats to power.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171297 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171297 0
Rethinking Black History Month in Germany In Britain, Canada, and the United States, Black History Month (BHM) events are widely well-known and are celebrated annually. But Black History Month also has roots in Germany. This year will mark the 30th anniversary of the annual Black History Month celebrations in Berlin, which became a fixture in the Black German community. Started by members in the Black German organization, ISD or the Initiative of Black Germans (Initiative Schwarze Deutsche), the celebrations began in 1990. Black History Month represented a clear manifestation of African diasporic politics and solidarity, particularly with themes that ranged from Black German history to African literature in Europe to South African Apartheid to U.S. Civil Rights activism. BHM committee members, who included members from ISD and other minority organizations, actively made these events not only cultural and political, but also intellectual. They were events at which Black Germans, Africans, African Americans as well as other People of Color from Brazil and Britain (to name a few), produced and disseminated knowledge and where attendees learned about the diversity of African diasporic histories in Europe and elsewhere. As a result, BHM represented a culture of everyday intellectualism that marked Black Germans as thinkers and doers. Starting in Berlin and spreading to Hamburg, Frankfurt, and Munich, these annual events emboldened Black Germans to pursue a spatial politic that showed their resilience and agency and rooted them in both the German nation and the global diaspora.

The BHMs, along with the Black German movement more generally, brought a variety of people together from different backgrounds. Black Germans were often scattered across white neighborhoods in West and East Germany with limited or no contact with other Black people or relatives. They were often individuals of mixed-race descent with ancestry in the Caribbean, Latin America, Africa, and the United States. They were also sometimes non-Black People of Color, like Asian Germans, who envisioned Black as a political identity for solidarity against racism. The BHMs also helped Black Germans socialize and forge connections with their diverse counterparts and others in Germany.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171296 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171296 0
Risk Takers and History Makers: Mexican Women of the World War II Generation Escaping poverty and revolution and lured by prospective employment in agriculture, mining, transportation, and the building trades, more than one million Mexicans migrated to the United States between 1910 and 1930, an estimated one-tenth to one-eighth of Mexico’s population. They settled into existing southwestern barrios and created new communities primarily in the Southwest and Midwest. Family migration was common. For Pasquala Esparza, journeying to El Paso with her nine-year-old daughter Jesusita and infant Raquel, the United States represented a safe haven from domestic abuse. Decades later Jesusita reflected: “My mother got married again and things did not work. I guess they did not work because I was mistreated, too, you know.”

A sense of refuge, however, eluded many Mexican American children and their parents. For women who came of age during the 1930s and 1940s, citizenship mattered little. During the early 1930s, one-third of the ethnic Mexican population in the United States (more than one million people) were either deported or repatriated to Mexico even though an estimated 60 percent were native US citizens, mostly children. Viewed as foreign usurpers of American jobs and as unworthy burdens on charity rolls, Mexicans were the only immigrants targeted for removal. They were either summarily deported by immigration agencies or persuaded to depart voluntarily by duplicitous social workers who greatly exaggerated the opportunities awaiting them south of the border. Emilia Castañeda and her family were forced to leave with little warning, even though her father, a recent widower, was a US legal resident and Emilia a citizen by birth. From the age of nine to nineteen, she lived in Mexico under dire circumstances. In her words: “We lived under a tree and a tent for awhile. We had no running water and we had to hang our food on ropes so the rats wouldn’t get it.” Now over ninety years old, Castañeda gives inspiring talks to schoolchildren about her experiences as she advocates for the inclusion of Depression-era deportations as part of the California K−12 History-Social Science Framework.

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Fri, 22 Feb 2019 21:24:27 +0000 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171295 https://historynewsnetwork.org/article/171295 0